“The Science Of Speech”
Okay! I’m just trying to impress you with the title but…
WHAT IS PHONETICS?
Phonetics is the area of the language that mainly looks at 3 things:
1-How we physically (or physiologically) produce sounds. (Articulatory Phonetics)
2-How we analyze the sound transmissions and patterns including the conditions in which they are produced. (Acoustic Phonetics)
3-How our ears, auditory system and brain filter and process these sounds once they receive them. (Auditory Phonetics)
I know, I know! Don’t worry. We are not going to talk about the 2nd (Acoustic Phonetics) or the 3rd (Auditory Phonetics) but we are going to look at…
The reason that I have chosen Articulatory Phonetics to walk you through is that I believe, out of all 3 areas of phonetics, it is the most relevant, hence useful skill for an English teacher to employ in the classroom. Do not get me wrong! The other two are very interesting too and I would strongly recommend that you do your homework and read up on them, however, you will probably not find a very practical use for them in a classroom of 15-18 students.
Great. We should probably get a move on! What about Articulatory Phonetics?
This area of phonetics concerns itself with how we use our mouth organs and vocal cords to make sounds? Let me be a little more specific. Articulatory phonetics essentially deals with two sound categories: Consonants & Vowels. In order to understand English consonants more, you have to familiarize yourself with 3 areas: 1-The place of articulation, 2-the manner of articulation and 3-Voicing. As I have already explained and listed the voiced and voiceless consonants, I will only go through the first two areas. First things first, what are they?
1-Place Of Articulation:Identifying the place, location, spot and mouth organs involved in the triggering and production of speech sounds.
2-Manner Of Articulation:Describing the manner in which these mouth organs trigger or produce speech sounds.
Place Of Articulation
|Place||Meaning?||The sounds produced|
|Bilabial||Articulated by the lower lip and upper lip||/m/ /b/ /p/ /w/|
|Labio-dental||Articulated by the lip and teeth||/f/ /v/|
|Lingua-dental||Articulated by the tongue and teeth||/θ/ /ð/|
|Lingua-alveolar||Articulated by the tongue and gum ridge||/t/ /d/ /s/ /z/ /ʧ/ /ʤ/ /n/ /l/ /t̬/|
|Lingual palatal||Articulated by the tongue and hard palate||/∫/ /ʒ/ /r/ /j/|
|Lingua-velar||Articulated by the tongue and soft palate (velum)||/k/ /g/ /η/ (/w/)|
|Glottal||Articulated by the glottis||/h/ /ʔ/|
Manner Of Articulation
|Manner||Meaning?||The sounds produced|
|A: Stop||We (start or finishing point) stop the air completely.||/p/ /b/ /d/ /t/ /k/ /g/|
|B: Fricative||We let the air leak from a narrow passage.||/f/ /v/ /s/ /z/ /∫/ /ʒ/ /θ/ /ð/ /h/|
|C: Affricate||We block the air (starting or finishing point) and then abruptly release it.||/ʤ/ /ʧ /|
|D: Nasal||We push air out from our nose.||/m/ /n/ /η/|
|E: Liquid (approximant)||We position the tongue in a manner that obstructs the airflow but without causing a friction (as in the case of /s/ or /f/, hence the term fricative)resulting in a consonant with a vowel-like quality.||/r/ /l/|
|F: Glide (approximant)||We begin a sound from a vowel position and end it in a consonant’s.||/w/ /j/|